Sunday, 10 April 2016

GLOSSARY OF INDIAN ART AND CULTURE



1.Agate:
·        A fine-grained variegated chalcedony, its colours arranged in stripes, blended in clouds, or showing moss like forms
2.Amalaka :
·        Ribbed, lenticular or globoid part resembling the amalaka (Indian gooseberry fruit) crowning the top of the North Indian style shikhara.


3.Anda :
·        Semi-circular dome.


4.Arabesque :
·        An ornamental design consisting of intertwined flowing lines, leaves and flowers.
5.Ardhmandap:
·        Semi-hall in front of the temple
6.Ashtadikpalas:
·        Guardians of the eight directions
7.Bosses:
·        Circular embossed decorations, usually in stone of contrasting colours located on either side of an arch and within the spandrels
8.Burin:
·        A pointed tool of flint or stone with a transverse edge made by the removal of one or more flakes.
·        Used for working bone, antler, and ivory, and, perhaps, for engraving



9.Calligraphy :
·        The art of producing decorative handwriting.

10.Chhatra :
·        Umbrella like structure on top of the stupa.


11.Chhatri :
·        Cupola resting on four pillars with a dome or pyramid-shaped roof.

12.Chahar Bagh :
·        A square, walled garden divided into four by intersecting water channels.


13.Chaitya : (2013 prelims)
·        Place of congregation and worship.
14.Chevron Patterning :
·        V- shaped patterns.

15.Corbel :
·        The stone or wooden bracket laid horizontally to support a cornice or an arch.

16. Dado panel :
·        Lower part of the interior wall when it is finished differently from the rest of the wall.
·        Some excellent examples are Jamali Kamali tomb in Mehrauli and Turkish Sultan’s palace in Fatehpur Sikri, Agra.


17. Intaglio :
·        The process of cutting a design into the surface of a small hard stone or gem.




18.Dhammachakrapravartan :
·        First sermon by Buddha at Sarnath near Varanasi .
19.Encaustic tile work:
·        Inlay in ceramics .
20.Faience :
·        Blue-coloured artificial glass-like material.
·        Faience was used in a variety of ornaments and pieces of jewellery.


21.Gahapati :
·        Big land-owner or big farmer involved in farming and trade
22.Garbhgriha:
·        Sanctum sanctorum
23.Gopuram:
·        Main gateway; the storeyed structure over the entrance or entrances through the enclosing walls to the premises of a temple, palace, or city
24.Hamam :
·        Turkish public bath for massage and sauna .
25. Harmika :
·        Small square fencing about the anda or semicircular dome of stupa.



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